Crude oil, or petroleum that has been extracted directly from the soil, is a very diverse product in terms of both its usage and composition. Crude oil is produced from the preserved remains of old zooplankton and algae that have accumulated in huge amounts on the bottom of the sea (or lake) as a result of anoxic conditions. Due to the compression and heating of prehistoric biological materials over the course of geological time, it emerged over millions of years from the remains of microscopic aquatic plants and animals that formerly thrived in ancient waters. The youngest oil-bearing rocks are only a million years old, while the oldest stretch back more than 600 million years.
The majority of crude oils are composed of hydrocarbons, which are molecules formed of hydrogen and carbon atoms but have a variety of configurations. Different-length hydrocarbon chains make up the chemical structure of petroleum. This enables the transportation of crude oil to oil refineries, where the hydrocarbon components can be separated through distillation and treated utilizing further chemical steps. It is tar-black in color and exists in both solid and liquid forms. Colors like red, green, and brown are typical.
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